Supporting research into child sexual abuse and its prevention

We are committed to providing information and research to help professionals, parents, carers and other protective protect children from sexual abuse.

This page includes articles, book chapters and other published research and materials authored by our staff, other organisations that we work with, or that includes our data or service users.

As a charity we have limited funds available to research, develop and print materials and we welcome support. If you are interested in supporting us please make a donation online.

If you’d like to discuss research opportunities please look at our information about research requests.



Child sexual abuse prevention

The Lucy Faithfull Foundation: twenty-five years of child protection and preventing child sexual abuse

Bailey, A., Squire, T., & Thornhill, L. (2018). The Lucy Faithfull Foundation: Twenty-Five Years of Child Protection and Preventing Child Sexual Abuse. In R. Lievesley, K. Hocken, H. Elliott, B. Winder, N. Blagden & P. Banyard (Eds.), Sexual Crime and Prevention (pp. 57-82). London: Palgrave Macmillon.

Theories of sexual crime prevention

Allardyce, S (2018) Theories of Sexual Crime Prevention. In ‘Sexual Crime and Prevention’ 2018 (pp. 1-25). Palgrave Macmillan

Findlater, D., 2017. The role of person and place in preventing child sexual abuse. In: D. Wilcox, M. Donathy, R. Gray and C. Baim, ed., Working with Sex Offenders A Guide for Practitioners. Routledge.

Findlater, D. (2015). Child Sexual Abuse: the Possibilities of Prevention. In Bentovim, A & Gray, J (Eds), Eradicating Child Maltreatment: Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevention and Intervention Across Services. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Ethics and issues of secondary prevention efforts in child sexual abuse

McCartan, K. F., Merdian, H. L., Perkins, D. E., & Kettleborough, D. (2018). Ethics and Issues of Secondary Prevention Efforts in Child Sexual Abuse. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(9), 2548–2566. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X17723951

Transnational child sexual abuse: outcomes from a roundtable discussion

Merdian, H., Perkins, D., Webster, S. & McCashin, D. (2019) Transnational Child Sexual Abuse: Outcomes from a Roundtable Discussion. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(2):243. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16020243


Stop It Now! helpline evaluation

In June 2014 an independent evaluation of the Stop It Now! helpline, conducted by specialist researchers from NatCen Social Research, was published. The report has been described as ‘overwhelmingly positive’ with findings showing that the helpline provides a valuable contribution to tackling child sexual abuse by helping people who have sexual thoughts, feelings and behaviour towards children manage their behaviour, and by assisting all callers to be informed about how to protect children and young people from risk of harm.

Call to keep children safe from sexual abuse: A study of the use and effects of the Stop It Now! UK and Ireland helpline

Brown, A., Jago, N., Kerr, J., Nicholls, C. M., Paskell, C. & Webster, S. (2014). Call to keep children safe from sexual abuse: A study of the use and effects of the Stop it Now! UK and Ireland Helpline. NatCen Social Research, Crime and Justice Team


Public education

Keeping the public in public protection – A report on two pilot community education campaigns for the prevention of child sexual abuse

Working with a community to prevent child sexual abuse in the home

Williams, M. (2018). Working with a community to prevent child sexual abuse in the home. London: NSPCC

Four steps to the prevention of child sexual abuse within the home

Williams, M. (2018). Four steps to the prevention of child sexual abuse within the home. London: NSPCC


Prevention of child sexual abuse in school settings

Hedgehogs pilot programme evaluation report
Whitehead, H. (2012). Hedgehogs Pilot Programme Evaluation Report. The Lucy Faithfull Foundation.

Hedgehogs pilot programme evaluation executive summary
Whitehead, H. (2012). Hedgehogs Pilot Programme Evaluation Executive Summary. The Lucy Faithfull Foundation.


Online sexual offending

Online sexual offenders: Typologies, assessment, treatment, and prevention

Paquette, S., Fortin, F. & Perkins, D. (2020). Online Sexual Offenders: Typologies, Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention. In The Wiley Handbook of What Works with Sexual Offenders: Contemporary Perspectives in Theory, Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention (eds. Jean Proulx  Franca Cortoni  Leam A. Craig  & Elizabeth J. Letourneau . Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119439325.ch18

Best practice in the management of online sex offending

Brennan, M., Merdian, H., and Perkins, D. (2019). Best Practice in the Management of Online Sex Offending.  PEARL Research Repository. University of Plymouth.  https://doi.org/10.24382/t2cs-sw55

Ethnography of CSEM material

Rimer, J. R. (2019). “In the street they’re real, in a picture they’re not”: Constructions of children and childhood among users of online child sexual exploitation material. Child abuse & neglect90, 160-173.

Rimer, J. R. (2017). Internet sexual offending from an anthropological perspective: Analysing offender perceptions of online spaces. Journal of Sexual Aggression23(1), 33-45.

Responding to online child sexual exploitation

Baines, V. “Online child sexual exploitation: towards an optimal international response.” Journal of Cyber Policy 4, no. 2 (2019): 197-215.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Victoria-Baines-3/publication/327306300_Online_Child_Sexual_Exploitation_Towards_an_Optimal_International_Response/links/5b87a26a299bf1d5a7312bc2/Online-Child-Sexual-Exploitation-Towards-an-Optimal-International-Response.pdf

Child sexual exploitation materials offenders: a review

Babchishin, K. M., Merdian, H. L., Bartels, R. M., & Perkins, D. E. (2018). ‘Child Sexual Exploitation Materials Offenders: A Review. European Psychologist (2018), 23(2), 130–143  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000326

Assessment of internetrelated sexual offenders

Perkins, D. (2018). ‘Assessment of internet‐related sexual offenders’. In J. L. Ireland, C. A. Ireland, & P. Birch (Eds.), Violent and sexual offenders: Assessment, treatment, and management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Strength-based approaches to online child sexual abuse: using self-management strategies to enhance desistance behaviour in users of child sexual exploitation material

Merdian, H., Kettleborough, D., McCartan, K. & Perkins, D. (2017). Strength-based approaches to online child sexual abuse: using self-management strategies to enhance desistance behaviour in users of child sexual exploitation material. Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol7, issue no 3, article no 596766

Themes in participant feedback on a risk reduction programme for child sexual exploitation material offenders

Dervley, R., Perkins, D., Whitehead, H., Bailey, A., Gillespie, S. M., & Squire, T. (2017). Themes in participant feedback on a risk reduction programme for child sexual exploitation material offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 23(1). 46-61. doi: 10.1080/13552600.2016.1269958

An evaluation of a community-based psycho-educational program for users of child sexual exploitation material

Gillespie, S. M., Bailey, A., Squire, T., Carey, M. L., Eldridge, H. J., & Beech, A. R. (2016). An Evaluation of a Community-Based Psycho-Educational Program for Users of Child Sexual Exploitation Material. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 2016, 1-23. doi:10.1177/1079063216639591Seto, M. C., & Ahmed, A. G. (2014). Treatment and Management of Child Pornography Use. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37, 207-214.

Research briefing (2013)

Initial findings from qualitative research involved hearing from Internet Offenders in their own words about what prompted them to begin viewing indecent images of children; how their illegal behaviour developed over time; methods used to find and view images; potential strategies for desisting; and how they are managing this behaviour at present.

Online behaviour related to child sexual abuse
Quayle, E., Allegro, S., Hutton, L., Sheath, M., L.: (2012). Online behaviour related to child sexual abuse. Creating a private space in which to offend – Interviews with online child sex offenders. Council of the Baltic Sea States, Stockholm: ROBERT project.

A review of e-safety remote computer monitoring for U.K. sex offenders (practice report)
Elliott, I. A., Findlater, D., & Hughes, T. (2010). Journal of Sexual Aggression, 16, 237-248. doi: 10.1080/13552601003686870.

Psychological profiles of Internet sexual offenders: Comparisons with contact sexual offenders
Elliott, I. A., Beech, A. R., Mandeville-Norden, R., & Hayes, E. (2009). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 76-92. doi: 10.1177/1079063208326929.

Understanding online child pornography use: Applying sexual offense theory to internet offenders
Elliott, I. A., & Beech, A. R. (2009). Aggression & Violent Behavior, 14, 180-193. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.03.002.

The internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review
Beech, A. R., Elliott, I. A., Birgden, A., & Findlater, D. (2008). Aggression & Violent Behavior, 13, 216-228. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2008.03.007.


Assessment and treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offences

Using the explicit and implicit sexual interest profile (EISIP) in applied forensic or clinical contexts

Schmidt, A. F. & Perkins, D. E. (2020). ‘Using the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP) in applied forensic or clinical contexts’ in Assessing and Managing Problematic Sexual Interests (eds. Geraldine Akerman, Derek Perkins & Ross Bartels). NY: Routledge.

Assessing sadism in sexual offenders

Higgs, T., Lord, A., Stefanska, E., Perkins, D. Proulx, J., Cortoni, F., Craig, L. & Letourneau, E. (2020) Assessing Sadism in Sexual Offenders.  In The Wiley Handbook of What Works with Sexual Offenders: Contemporary Perspectives in Theory, Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention (eds. Jean Proulx  Franca Cortoni  Leam A. Craig  & Elizabeth J. Letourneau. DOI: 10.1002/9781119439325.ch8

Use of penile plethysmography in the court: A review of practices in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States

Murphy, L., Gottfried, E., Dimario, K., Perkins, D, & Fedoroff, P. (2020) Use of penile plethysmography in the court: A review of practices in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Volume38, Issue 2, Pages 79-99. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2453

Development of a case formulation model for individuals who have viewed, distributed, and/or shared child sexual exploitation material

Merdian, H. L., Perkins, D. E., Dustagheer, E., & Glorney, E. (2018). Development of a Case Formulation Model for Individuals Who Have Viewed, Distributed, and/or Shared Child Sexual Exploitation Material. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X17748067

Interventions for perpetrators of online child sexual exploitation: A scoping review and gap analysis

Perkins, D., Merdian, H., Schumacher, B., Bradshaw, H., & Stevanovic, J. (2018). Interventions for perpetrators of online child sexual exploitation: A scoping review and gap analysis. Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse: Child sexual exploitation perpetrators research programme, Report 5

Development of a case formulation model for users of child sexual exploitation material

Merdian, H., Perkins, D., Dustagheer, E., & Glorney, E. (2017). Development of a Case Formulation Model for Users of Child Sexual Exploitation Material. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.

Eye tracking and assessing sexual interests in forensic contexts

Hogue, T., Wesson, C. & Perkins, D. (2016) ‘Eye tracking and assessing sexual interests in forensic contexts’. In The Wiley Handbook on the Theories, Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offending, Volume 1 (ed Douglas P. Boer). Wiley

Pathways to online sex offending: Development of a case formulation models for users of child sexual exploitation material

Merdian, H. L., & Perkins, D. (2015) Pathways to online sex offending: development of a case formulation models for users of child sexual exploitation material. In: “Let’s Talk About Sex” in Sex Offending Research and Practice, 14 May 2015, Lincoln.

Case formulation: The dilemmas posed by child sex offenders
Sheath, M. (2010). In S. Corrie, & D.A. Lane (Eds.), Constructing Stories, Telling Tales: A Guide to Formulation in Applied Psychology (pp. 149-172). London, U.K: Karnak Books.


Young people and harmful sexual behaviour

Sibling sexual abuse

Yates, P, and Allardyce, S. (2021) Sibling sexual abuse: A knowledge and practice overview

https://www.csacentre.org.uk/csa-centre-prodv2/assets/File/Sibling%20sexual%20abuse%20report%20-%20for%20publication.pdf

Allardyce, S., & Yates, P. M. (2013). Assessing risk of victim crossover with children and young people who display harmful sexual behaviours. Child abuse review22(4), 255-267.

http://www.amberleighcare.co.uk/uploaded_files/ALLARDYCE%20et%20al%20(2013)%20Assessing%20Risk%20of%20Victim%20Crossover.pdf

Children who have displayed harmful sexual behaviour

Allardyce, S., Wareham, S., and Yates, P., (2021) Children Who Have Displayed Harmful Sexual Behaviour: a Gender Sensitive Approach in Understanding Gender Based Violence, Edited by Bradbury-Jones, C.,  and  Springer, L. Springer

Allardyce, S. & Meader, S (2020) Expert Insight: Adolescent harmful sexual behaviour in NSPCC. (2020). How Safe Are Our Children? 2020 – An Overview of Data on Abuse of Adolescents. NSPCC Learning

Page 35 in How safe are our children? Report by NSPCC

Allardyce, S., and Yates, (forthcoming) Young People who Sexually Abuse Others. In The Child Protection Handbook: 4th edition: Clawson, R., Fyson, R., and Warwick. L.

Allardyce, S. and Yates, P (2018) Working With Children Who Have Displayed Harmful Sexual Behaviour. Dunedin Press

Evaluation of the implementation of the good way model in the UK: Final report

Bradbury-Jones, C.,  Zafar, D., Isham, L., Yates, P., Allardyce, S., and Taylor, J.  (2020) Evaluation of the Implementation of the Good Way Model in the UK: Final Report University of Birmingham

Ethical practice with young people involved with serious offending behaviour 

Allardyce, S., McAfee, J. (2016) Ethical practice with young people involved with serious offending behaviour.  CYCJ Briefing

Effective practice with sexually harmful and violent behaviours in young people: A literature review

Vaswani, N., Moodie, K., Shaw, J., Morton, P., Orr, D., Allardyce, S. and Connelly, G (2015) Effective practice with sexually harmful and violent behaviours in young people: a literature review. CYCJ

Practice and policy in the UK with children and young people who display harmful sexual behaviour: An analysis and critical review

Smith, C, Allardyce, S, Bradbury-Jones, C, Lazenbatt, A & Taylor, J.  (2014), Practice and Policy in the UK with Children and Young People who Display Harmful Sexual Behaviour: An analysis and critical review Journal of Sexual Aggression, vol 20, no. 3.

On being realistic about reducing the prevalence and impacts of youth sexual violence and abuse in two Australian Indigenous communities

Tilley, N., Rayment-McHugh, S., Smallbone, S., Wardell, M., Smith, D., Allard, T., Wortley, R., Findlater, D., Stewart, A., & Homel, R. (2014). On being realistic about reducing the prevalence and impacts of youth sexual violence and abuse in two Australian Indigenous communities. Learning Communities: International Journal of Learning in Social Contexts [Special Issue: Evaluation], 14, 6-27. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18793/LCJ2014.14.02.

Risk management and young people

Allardyce S (2012) Risk Management and Young People (CJSW Briefing Paper 18)

Children who display harmful sexual behaviour: Assessing the risks of boys abusing at home, in the community or across both settings

Yates, P., Allardyce, S., and MacQueen, S. (2012). Children who display harmful sexual behaviour: Assessing the risks of boys abusing at home, in the community or across both settings. Journal of Sexual Aggression. Vol.18(1):23-35


Women who commit sexual offences

Lucy Faithfull Foundation assessment and intervention programme for women who sexually abuse children
Eldridge, H. J., Saradjian, J., Brotherston, S., & Ashfield, S. (unpublished)

New life manual
Eldridge, H. J., & Saradjian, J. (unpublished).

Assessing women who sexually abuse children
Eldridge, H.J., Elliott, I.A., Gillespie, S., Bailey, A. and Beech, A.R. (in press) In J. L. Ireland, C.A. Ireland and P. Birch, eds. Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management, 2nd edn. London: Routledge

The use of online technology in the modus operandi of female sex offenders

Elliot, I.A., and Ashfield, S.A. (2011). Journal of Sexual Aggression, 17, 92-104

Women who sexually abuse children

Eldridge, H. J., Elliott, I. A., Gillespie, S., Bailey, A., & Beech, A. R. (2019). Assessing Women Who Sexually Abuse Children.  In J. L. Ireland, C. A. Ireland & P. Birch (Eds.), Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management, 2nd ed. (pp. 128-150). London: Routledge

Treatment approaches for women who sexually abuse children

Eldridge, H. J., Bailey, A., & Brotherston, S. M. (2019). Treatment Approaches for Women Who Sexually Abuse Children. In J. L. Ireland, C. A. Ireland & P. Birch (Eds), Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management 2nd ed. (pp. 130-150). London: Routledge.

Characteristics of females who sexually offend: A comparison of solo and co-offenders
Gillespie, S. M., Williams, R., Elliott, I. A., Eldridge, H. J., Ashfield, S. and Beech, A. R. (2015). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 27: 284-301.

Female sex offenders: Gender and risk perception
I Elliott, I. A. and Bailey, A. (2014). n K. McCartan, P. Rumney and N. Ryder, eds. Sexual Offending: Perceptions, Risks and Responses. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 48-71.

Female sexual offenders: the need for a gender-responsive approach
Ashfield, S., Brotherston, S., Eldridge, H. and Elliott, I. (2013). In K. Harrison and B. Rainey, eds. Handbook of Legal and Ethical Aspects of Sex Offender Treatment and Management. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 321-337.

Working with female sexual abusers: Therapeutic process issues

Ashfield, S., Brotherston, S., Eldridge, H. E., & Elliott, I. A. (2010). In T.A. Gannon, & F. Cortoni (Eds.), Sexual Offenders: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment (pp. 161-180). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley Blackwell.

Exploring risk: Potential static, dynamic, protective and treatment factors in the clinical histories of female sex offenders
Elliott, I. A., Eldridge, H. E., Ashfield, S., & Beech, A. R. (2010). Journal of Family Violence, 25, 595-602. doi: 10.1007/s10896-010-9322-8.


Disabilities and child sexual abuse

Exploration of the relationship between severe and complex disabilities and child sexual abuse: a call for relevant research

Barron, I., Allardyce, S., Young, H., & Levit, R. (2019). Exploration of the relationship between severe and complex disabilities and child sexual abuse: a call for relevant research. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1-22


Acknowledgement and consultation in prosecuting sexual offences report by Justice UK

JUSTICE. (2019). Prosecuting Sexual Offences. Chair of the committee HH Peter Rook QC

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